Equipped with the same number of fuel compression mechanisms as the number of engine cylinders, the In-line fuel pump operates in accordance with the injection sequence as per determined by the camshaft.
There are total of 3 different types of Inline fuel pumps : A Type, P Type, NB (EP-9) Type.
VE Fuel Pump
The VE-type or distributor fuel pump differs from the conventional In-line fuel pump mainly due to the fact that VE pump uses only ONE pumping plunger for all engine cylinders. This results in a more compact and lightweight design compared to the In-line pump.
V3 Fuel Pump
The world’s first SPV (electromagnetic Spill Valve System) is used for better fuel injection quantity control, so the quantity injected by each cylinder can be controlled.
V4 Fuel Pump
This system incorporates the following functionalities: Inner cam pumping mechanism, high response electromagnetic spill valve, EDU (Electronic Driver Unit), and compensation ROM. This fuel pump is normally used in Direct Injection diesel engines.
V5 Fuel Pump
This system uses Pilot Injection to control the individual cylinder delivery quantity and is used mainly to reduce the engine combustion noise and a smoother & quieter idling for the vehicle.
This type of supply pump is the first common rail system that DENSO commercializes. This is usually mounted in large trucks and large buses. It is usually fitted with an additional sensor called TDC Sensor and its purpose is to feedback cylinder recognition to the ECU.
This common rail system, was introduced in 1999, and is usually fitted onto passenger cars. This is usually used to replace a new version of vehicles previously fitted with V3 system.
In 2001, a common rail system was introduced using a lighter and more compact supply pump.
This system using 3 plungers / cylinders was introduced in year 2004.
The injector consists of a nozzle similar to the conventional “nozzle & nozzle holder”, an orifice that controls the injection rate, the command piston, and a solenoid valve (2-way). Precision control is attained through electronic control of the injection.
By reducing the injector actuation load, the injector has been made more compact and energy efficient. Also, injection precision has been improved. The solenoid valve directly opens and closes the outlet orifice.
To ensure high pressure, the G2 Type has improved pressure strength, sealing performance and pressure wear resistance. It has been incorporated with multi-injection for the purpose of reducing exhaust gas emissions and noise.
G / GA Type
In the early 1980s, the G / GA Type was designed, using the force of the magnetic switch (via the drive lever) to push the pinion gear outwards to engage the engine ring gear.
R / RA Type
In the early 1990s, the R Type meaning the “Reduction” type had been designed to allow higher deceleration ratio. Also, the design allows a more compact and lightweight starter to be introduced to the automotive market.
P / PA Type
The P / PA Type starter uses the same compact, high-speed motor as the reduction type, but uses a planetary gear as the deceleration mechanism.
Till date, the PS Type is still the best choice for the passenger vehicles as it uses uncoated, angular wire armature coils for a compact and lightweight design with high output and high efficiency.
The first Conventional Type alternator was designed in 1962 and has been revolutionary ever since. Usually driven by the belt on the engine crankshaft pulley. The alternator is used in combination with a contact type regulator, with some types having a built-in IC regulator.
In comparison to the Conventional Type, the Type III alternator has an integrated cooling fan and rotor, and also, a built-in IC regulator. The first Type III can be found since 1982. It usually can be found in the Toyota vehicles, especially Vios NCP42, Altis ZZE121, etc.
Like the name suggest, the Brushless Type does not use brushes and is primarily used in construction machinery due to the unique requirements of:
a) High resistance to vibration.
b) High resistance to water, mud, etc.
c) Easy maintenance.
From year 2000, there is a requirement to achieve a higher output yet with a low running noise. With this in mind, the new SC which stands for Segment Conductor Type was developed. In SC Type, a miniaturized single-chip regulator is used in accordance.
Turbochargers are a type of forced induction system. They compress the air flowing into the engine. By compressing the air, it lets the engine squeeze more air into a cylinder, and more air means that more fuel can be added. Therefore, you get more power from each explosion in each cylinder. In order to achieve this boost, the turbocharger uses the exhaust flow from the engine to spin a turbine, which in turn spins an air pump.